نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فلسفه علم دانشگاه صنعتی شریف، تهران، ایران.

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه مفید قم، قم، ایران.

10.22096/ek.2016.26456

چکیده

مطابق با استنتاج بهترین تبیین (IBE)، فرضیه‌ای که بهترین تبیین را برای دسته‌ای از پدیده‌ها ارائه می‌دهد، احتمالاً صادق است. وَن فِراسِن (1989) با استدلالی که به «ایراد گروه بد» مشهور است، این ادعا را به چالش کشیده ‌است. بر طبق این اشکال، این باور که بهترین تبیین به احتمال بسیار تبیینی صادق است مستلزم این باور پیشینی‌است که تبیین صادق به احتمال زیاد در میان تبیین‌های رقیبِ در دسترس (ارزیابی شده) جای دارد؛ باوری که هیچ دلیلی برای آن نداریم. بسیاری از فیلسوفان کوشیده‌اند تا نادرستی «ایراد گروه بد» را نشان دهند. از این میان، چهار استدلال که آن‌ها را استدلال از طریق بیزگرایی، استدلال از طریق زوج متناقض، استدلال از طریق خود‌‌شکنی  و استدلال از طریق تمایز میان ماده و صورت IBE می‌نامیم از اهمیت بسزایی برخوردارند (Niiniluoto, 2004) ;(Lipton, 1993); (Lipton, 1993) ;(Schupbach, 2013). در این نوشتار با بررسی استدلال‌های یاد شده نشان می‌دهیم که سه استدلال نخست نادرستند و تنها استدلال از طریق تمایز میان ماده و صورت IBE می‌تواند کارساز باشد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Inference to the Best Explanation and “the Bad Lot Objection”

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed mohammad mahdi Eatemad Eslami Bakhtiari 1
  • Mirsaeid Moosavi Karimi 2

1 M.A Student of philosophy, Mofid University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor of Philosophy, Mofid University, Qom, Iran.

چکیده [English]

According to Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE), the hypothesis that provides the best explanation for a group of observed phenomena is probably true. One of the key objections against this line of thought is “the bad lot objection”. According to this objection, the idea that the best of available explanatory hypotheses will be more likely to be true presupposes that the truth is already more likely to be found among them. But we have no reason to believe it. The most prominent criticisms against this objection are argument from Bayesianism (Niiniluoto, 2004), argument from a pair of contradictories (Lipton, 1993), argument from self-destruction (Lipton, 1993) and argument from distinction between material content and form of IBE (Schupbach, 2013). In this paper, we evaluate these arguments and show that all the arguments but the last one misses the mark.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • IBE
  • the Bad Lot Objection
  • Bayes
  • a Pair of Contradictories
  • Self-Destruction
  • Material Content
  • Form

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